Anatomical
Having to do with the anatomy, or structure, of an organism.
Devolution
Also called “backward evolution,” the notion that species change over time into more primitive forms by losing the functions not necessary in their environment.
Fossil Record
Fossils preserved in layers of rock that scientists use to study the history of life.
Gastrointestinal Tract
The channel of digestion that begins at the mouth, and includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, ending at the anus.
Physiological
Having to do with physiology, or the functions in living things.
Protozoa
Single-celled organisms that have a nucleus, such as algae.
Secretion
The process of releasing chemicals from a cell into the body.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that stores genetic make up, or code. All living things have DNA.
Spring 2003 Newsletter: Creation to Restoration Part II
Author: Professor Walter J. Veith, PhD
Publish date:
 
 

Why Transformation?
When God created the world, it was perfect. All creatures lived in harmony and there was no pain. Once sin entered the world, however, the ground was cursed. To deal with the new, imperfect conditions, plants and animals were transformed. Although the world is now marked with parasites, death, and error, we can still see glimpses of how God originally intended creatures to interact.

In the previous article, we discussed how the genome is capable of variation. It is possible to produce dramatic changes in form and structure by modifying how the genes are expressed, by changing the developmental expressions, or by activating or deactivating of genes within the genome.

In this article, we will look at several examples of the transformation caused by environmental changes.

Plants
According to Genesis, the ground was cursed after the fall, and plants and animals were transformed. Some plants were to bring forth thorns and thistles. Thorns and spines are really just stems and leave that have modified growth processes. There is no new information here, just a modification of the existing pattern.

Bacteria
Some organisms can become dangerous when forced to survive in a new habitat.

Here is an example of how transformation could have occurred in bacteria, causing the development of disease organisms. Originally, bacteria could all have had highly specific roles to play in assisting numerous processes in the body and in the environment, just as useful bacteria still do today, and their original role could have been only beneficial. These bacteria lived in the gastrointestinal tract. If they ended up elsewhere, they could have undergone physiological changes, producing harmful substances that wreak havoc on humans and animals.i

Parasites
A changing environment could also induce organisms to exploit new and different food sources, forcing them to become parasites. For example, protozoa that were designed to assist in animal nutrition could have been transformed into deadly pathogens.

Parasitic worms show dramatic levels of degeneration of organs, and the tapeworm and numerous other species of parasitic worms have been transformed into little other than reproductive organisms.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. 
Attribution: © Hans Hillewaert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sacculina_carcini_(double_infection).jpg

Sacculina, a parasite of crabs, has no digestive tract. Instead of maturing into a normal barnacle, it is transformed into a blob of cells. The loss of organs is not necessarily the result of mutations, but could just be the result of deactivation of the gene systems that are not required under the new circumstances.

There is no evidence here of evolution, only of devolution.

Insects
Insects could also have been modified to develop mechanisms of defense. Female mosquitoes use their syringe-like mouthparts to suck blood from a host, but the male of the species uses the same mouthparts to extract plant juices. Is it possible that plant juice was no longer sufficient to provide the energy the female mosquito needs, and that the apparatus that was created for sucking plant juices became the tool used to suck blood?

Venomous Creatures
In general, venom is just a normal secretion that has been modified. The venom of poisonous fish is a product of the glands that normally produce protective slime to coat the fish. The spines on the fish that deliver the venom are modified fin rays. The venom of snakes and spiders may simply be modified digestive proteins.

Carnivores
Carnivores are equipped with the necessary weapons to kill and catch other animals, but this equipment need not necessarily have been designed for that purpose. Pandas, for example, are classified as carnivores on the strength of their teeth, but they eat bamboo. Their teeth can kill and tear flesh, but that wasn’t what they were made to do.

The same can be said for bears. They will eat fish if available and can be opportunist carnivores, but usually subsist on a vegetarian diet of berries.

In evolutionary thinking, survival pressures lead to evolutionary advance in both the prey and the predator. However, this transformation of animals into killing machines, seen from a Creation perspective, is an adaptive condition that points to degeneration rather than evolutionary advance. Carnivory is not an advanced state, but rather a sad consequence of the introduction of death and violence into the system.

Preadaption and Rapid Change
The earth was originally created perfect. It became marred and cursed when sin entered, and there is evidence of creatures quickly adapting to their imperfect habitats ever since. Food choices and level of aggression are examples of traits that can change rapidly in creatures when they are faced with different environments.

Whereas the theory of evolution suggests that species evolve over millions of years, Creation suggests that animals were preadapted to deal with changes in their environments. Moreover, some species could survive even drastic changes if they were preadapted with the tools that would allow them to enter entirely new adaptive zones, such as changing from a vegetarian to meat-eating lifestyle.

Changes in Diet
When lions make a kill, they prefer to first eat the rumen, which contains fermented plant products, before they eat the meat. Could this be because lions were originally created as vegetarians but had to adapt to greater competition and fewer food sources?

Carnivores who become vegetarians adapt rapidly to this diet, and survive very well. There are numerous accounts of lions that were raised on grain diets and would not even touch meat. These animals are great examples of how adaptation, especially in terms of diet, can be a very fast process.

Dogs and cats can also survive very well on vegetarian diets. In fact, they live much longer and are less aggressive on such diets. The meat-shearing teeth of these animals could have been used to shred tough plants in the past, and the fact that they don't do so now could simply be because their original food source was destroyed. There is plenty of evidence in the fossil record that more varieties of plants existed in the past than exist today.

Even in our day, animal diets are changed by the destruction of habitats. Chipmunks traditionally eat seeds in the forests, but these days we often see them eating roadkill to augment their diets. This is a case of a herbivore becoming a meat scavenger as a result of changing circumstances.

Kea parrots in New Zealand ordinarily dig for roots, but dwindling food supplies encourage them to attack sheep. The parrots use their sharp beaks and claws to tear open the backs of the sheep so that they can eat the fat around the kidneys.ii If their food source is restored, the parrots will go back to eating roots.

Kea parrots have the same sharp talons and powerful beaks as birds of prey, but use them for harmless purposes. Lack of food often leads to aggression, and this could be one of the reasons why they aggressively attack a creature that cannot defend itself.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vampire_finch-
A vampire finch.

A further example of rapid adaptation is the Vampire Finch of the Galapagos Islands. These normally vegetarian birds have recently been shown to raid nests and suck blood from nesting booby birds, a change in diet induced by increasing competition for vegetarian resources.iii,viThe finches feed on these sea birds during extended periods of drought. They peck at the base of the feathers until the blood flows and then they sip it. This is a change in diet and behavior induced by negative environmental circumstances and did not require millions of years to develop.

Changes in Levels of Aggression
Aggression potentially exists in all creatures, but it need not have been there in the beginning. For example, out of the wild species from which the domestic dog has been bred, there have been developed incredibly docile, friendly, and loving dogs of all shapes and sizes. Selective breeding can also produce the most vicious killers out of the same gene pool. Aggressive natures thus have a genetic basis and can be reduced rapidly through selection.

The Russian scientist Dmitry Belyaev and others who studied the process of domestication of foxes found that changes in behavior could be selected for rapidly.v Out of a variety of foxes, those that responded without fear to humans were selected and the fearful ones discarded, and by the sixth generation the foxes were displaying behavior patterns similar to domestic dogs—whimpering to attract attention and licking their keepers. This behavior increased to one pup in six by the tenth generation and to three pups in four by the 30th generation.

The changes were accompanied by anatomical changes—including increases in serotonin levels. Highly aggressive or schizophrenic people are known to have low serotonin levels and are treated to compensate for this condition. The development of aggression and fear of humans need thus not have developed over millions of years but could have come about very rapidly.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/21708387@N02/9650579634
Black Pacu.

There is also evidence that the ancestors of the piranha were once plant eaters. Many species of South American pacu fish, which are closely related to the piranha, use their powerful jaws and strong teeth not to attack other creatures, but to eat plants and fruits. The piranha and the pacu are very similar in form and structure. In fact, there is no clear morphological distinction between the vicious piranha and the vegetarian pacu.vi,vii

Conclusion
If environmental conditions were to change, plants and animals could adapt to those conditions by differentially employing the genes and gene controlling mechanisms available in order to survive. There would be no need to wait for some fortuitous mutation to occur in order to overcome new obstacles because, in a sense, all organisms have been preadapted to deal with change within the limits set by their genetic composition.

 


 

i G.T. Keusch, “Ecology of the intestinal tract,” Nature 83 (1974):70-77. 

ii Nature Australia, (2000): 5.

iii J. Weiner, The Beak of the Finch, (London: Jonathan Cape Random House, 1994).

iv "Islands of the Vampire Birds," ABC TV Australia, Broadcasted October 13, 1999.

v L. Trut, "Early canid domestication: the farm-fox experiment," American Scientist 87 (1999): 160-169.

vi "Piranha and new DNA evidence," www.angelfire.com/biz/pirahna038/pg2.html, April 28, 2000.

vii "sub-family Serrasalmina," www.angelfire.com/biz/pirahna038/pg2.html, April 28, 2000.

Science Deceptions
Media Deceptions
Reformation
Spiritual Deceptions
Health Deceptions
A Basis for Conflict
Is there evidence for Creation science? How does it compare to evolution? The following articles give insight in to these questions and more.
Evolution Is Not Science—It's Religion Conforming Under Pressure The Big Bang Theory How Can We See Stars That Are Billions Of Light Years Away? Creation and Evolution: Is Compromise Possible? Understanding the Creation Week The Rise of Evolutionary Thinking Geocentricity: It's Time to Face the Facts Earth's History: Conflicting Paradigms Lamarck Proposes Natural Selection Where did the Universe Come From? Evidence for a Young Universe Age Of The Earth A Basis for Conflict Articles Is Carbon-Dating Accurate? Flood Chronology
Evidence in Stone
Can we understand the age of the earth by the rocks? What theory does the evidence support?
Soft Rock Evidence for Rapid Washout
The Fossil Record
What does the fossil record show us? Is it all random or a defined science that we can understand? Where does evolution fit? Uncover mysteries in the history of the Earth.
Evolutionary Sequences Order in the Fossil Record Evolution of the Horse Explosive Evolution Fossils prove a Flood Fossil Footprints Dinosaurs and the Flood Petrified Trees The Biblical Flood Reasons For Extinction Fossil Reefs The Post-Flood World Human Evolution
Genes of Genesis
As we study the genome, the molecule, and the atom, we see a vast network of intricate systems beyond our understanding. Were these systems really formed by chance?
Is the Gastraea Hypothesis Viable? Mechanisms For Variation Built-in Variation in the Gene Pool Why So Many Species - Glossary "Species" versus "Kind" Molecules That Began Life Creating Life in a Test Tube? Answering Questions Reproductive Exchange Natural Selection Transposable Elements Natural Selection as a Creative Force Recombination of Chromosomes The Evidence of Things Not Seen Ernst Haeckel's Theories Dinosaur Extinction and Global Catastrophe Variation and Classification Evolution: Miracle of Miracles Why So Many Species? Spiders and the Creative Genius of God Things That Negate Evolution: Snake Legs Wrong Assumptions in C-14 Dating Methods The Australian Problem Synesthesia: Mystery of God’s Creation
Creation to Restoration
How did this world change from the perfection depicted in Genesis to a world full of thorns, thistles, parasites, and death? If God made everything perfect, how could it have all been so changed?
A Good World Gone Bad An Imperfect Planet Evidence For Design Evidence For Transformation Rapid Transformation Clean and Unclean: The History of the Human Diet The Dawn Chorus and Life Forces
Archaeology and the Bible
Archaeology and prophecy have proven the Bible to be true. But what's so special about the Bible that makes it a point of so much controversy?
Archaeology Confirms the Bible The Lost Books of the Bible
Crossing Musical Boundaries
Music is a powerful emotional motivator that crosses cultural and language barriers. Its message can be understood by every culture and people across the planet.
Can You Feel the Music? The Bible and Rock Music: Are they Compatible? The Last Great Contest – Worship From the Horse's Mouth: The Rock Industry Condemns Itself
Hollywood and the Movies
What is the system of worship found most often in our society? Does it glorify God?
Hollywood's History Gnostic Themes in the Movies Hollywood and Gnosticism
Brain Closed—Please Come Again
Research has shown that our sensitivity to stimuli reduces itself yearly by about 1%. Is your brain hibernating?
The Dangers of Television
Beware of the television's abilities to hypnotize, alter moods, and even cause depression.
Violence and Video Games
Like music and movies, video games are addictive and can cause behavioral problems.
The Origins of Halloween
What is the origin behind this popular festival celebrated every October 31?
Catholic Councils
What happened at the Council of Trent? The First Vatican Council The Second Vatican Council
The Jesuits
Learn what people throughout history have had to say on the reputation, history, and political nature of the Jesuit Order.
Ignatius Loyola and Spiritual Formation Protestantism Destroyed The Jesuit Superior General
The Pope Claims to be God on Earth
Read proof that throughout the Roman Church's history, the Papacy has often claimed that the Pope is divine.
Cross and Crown
This book "Cross and Crown" is a powerful and thrilling recital of the most romantic and dramatic incidents in history to be found on record, told in the simplest, most graphic, and entertaining form.
The Aggressive Intentions of the Papacy
The historian Ranke says this about Protestant-Catholic relations: "In the year 1617, everything betokened a decisive conflict between them. The Catholic party appears to have felt itself the superior. At all events it was the first to take up arms."

This article highlights quotes from historical and Catholic sources proving the Papacy's aggressive nature.
The Bloody History of Papal Rome - A Timeline The Bloody History of Papal Rome - Quotes Christianity and Violence
Stories of the Reformation
Dive into history to uncover the remarkable stories of faith and passion in early Protestantism.
Philipp Melanchthon John Laski Jerome of Prague John Wycliffe Louis De Berquin Gaspard De Coligny
Religious Doublespeak
Language can be used to communicate both truth and lies. Learn about the religious doublespeak being used to pull the wool over the eyes of the world.
Hegelian Thinking and World Politics
Hegelian dialectic thinking is applied in many situations in world politics. Often the ordinary people are used as pawns in the game of Hegelian psychology played by those who pull the strings of world control.
The Great Controversy
Read this classic work by Ellen G. White.
The Destruction of Jerusalem Persecution in the First Centuries An Era of Spiritual Darkness The Waldenses John Wycliffe Huss and Jerome Luther's Separation From Rome Luther Before the Diet The Swiss Reformer Progress of Reform in Germany Protest of the Princes The French Reformation The Netherlands and Scandinavia Later English Reformers The Bible and the French Revolution The Pilgrim Fathers Heralds of the Morning An American Reformer Light Through Darkness A Great Religious Awakening A Warning Rejected Prophecies Fulfilled What is the Sanctuary? In the Holy of Holies God's Law Immutable A Work of Reform Modern Revivals Facing Life's Record The Origin of Evil Enmity Between Man and Satan Agency of Evil Spirits Snares of Satan The First Great Deception Can Our Dead Speak to Us? Liberty of Conscience Threatened The Impending Conflict The Scriptures a Safeguard The Final Warning The Time of Trouble God's People Delivered Desolation of the Earth The Controversy Ended
Prophecy
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
The First Beast—Comparing Daniel 7 and Revelation 13 Revelation Identifies End-Time Babylon The Second Beast of Revelation 13 Identifying the Antichrist The Final Confederacy Walking Through Daniel The Seven Plagues Walking through Revelation
Religious Trends
What are the trends in the religious world today? Sun Worship, The UN and the One World Religion, Eastern Mysticism and Spiritism... Just what do all these things mean in light of Bible prophecy?
Sun Worship Babylonian Religion The Charismatic Movement Politics and the Papacy Paganism and Mary Wealth Redistribution Catholic Pentecostalism Unity at All Cost? Sustainability Spiritism throughout Religions Pentecostalism The Charismatic Movement and Spiritual Gifts Paganism and Christmas Manifesting the Charismatic Spirit The New Age Movement Paganism in our Culture The United Nations' Global Government The History of Tongues Secret Societies Revival and the "Power of God" Signs and Wonders What’s So Bad about Spiritual Formation? Zionism
Sabbath
Most people can understand the reasoning behind nine of the Ten Commandments—don't kill, don't lie, don't steal. But what about the Sabbath Commandment? Why would God give such a law? Why should we follow it?
What is the Seventh-Day Sabbath? Creation and the Sabbath The Weekly Cycle Why Sunday? Sabbath FAQ
The Second Coming of Christ
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
Signs of The Second Coming of Christ Viewpoints How Christ will Return What will Happen to God's People? What will Happen to the Rejecters of God? Will there be a Secret Rapture? The Millennium of Peace
The Bible
Can the Bible be trusted to provide answers to our questions? Does it contain truth? Learn about the evidence that proves the Bible's authenticity.
Archaeology Confirms the Bible Choosing the Books of the Bible Studying Scripture Scripture is Inspired by God Testing the Gospel of Thomas Testing the Gospel of Judas The Spirit in Scripture The Lost Books of the Bible The Gospel Story Spiritual Gifts
Jesus
Is Jesus really who He says He is?
Who is Jesus?
Christian Living: Sin and Salvation
Consider the crucial points of the Christian life.
Christian Living Good God, Bad World. Why? God's Plan to Eradicate Sin The Ceremonial Feasts Pointed to Christ
Death
Is there more to death than the fact that it is the opposite of life? What are the false doctrines involving the immortality of the soul?
Death: Understanding the Terminology A Biblical Understanding of Death The Resurrection of Lazarus Spiritism Hell and Purgatory An Immediate Afterlife? The Parable of Lazarus
Excitotoxins
Excitotoxins cause physical and spiritual destruction. Learn about the main types of exitotoxins and what can be done to avoid them.
Aspartame MSG: Is This Silent Killer Lurking in Your Kitchen Cabinets
Is a Little Wine Good for the Heart?
Reports show that red wine may be beneficial to heart health. Is that a good enough reason to start drinking alcohol?
Is a Little Wine Good for the Soul?
The Dairy Controversy
Get the truth about lactose, calcium, and the need for caution around dairy products.
Drink Milk? Udder Propaganda Lactose Intolerance Calcium
Poisoned Meats
Today's meat and dairy industries are focused on profit rather than health.
The History of the Human Diet
Genetically Modified Foods
The agriculture industry is fast becoming reliant on genetically modified foods. Learn the facts about GMOs and the effects this trend is having on health worldwide.
Soy Safety Summarized Still Eating Genetically Modified Foods? The Big GMO Cover-up
Refined Grains
Most of the bread products consumed today are made of refined grains. Are our breakfast cereals and "fortified" loaves as healthy as we like to think?
The Gluten Connection: Weighing in Against Modern Wheat
Coffee
Do the stimulating benefits of coffee really outweigh the costs?
America's Number One Drug Problem—Coffee Caffeine
Sugar—Affecting the Body and Mind
Refined sugar is addictive, destructive, and devoid of any nutritional value. Why does it continue to be a staple food across the world?
Sugar and Mental Illness Eating Sugar is Worse than Eating Nothing at All Sugar Substitutes The Truth About Evaporated Cane Juice
Can You Beat the Nicotine?
Smoking leads to massive amounts of sickness and death every year. Can you beat the nicotine?
Kicking the Tobacco Habit Nicotine and Depression
Necessary Treatments?
From mammograms to prescription drugs, the modern medical industry is always presenting a new way to diagnose and solve health issues. But are these new treatments really healing anything?
Mammograms or Thermal Imaging? How to Kill a Cold, Starve a Fever Many Doctors Ignore the Root Cause of Cancer Are Hospital Births or Home Births Safer? Compromise in the Pharmaceutical Industry Hepatitis B Vaccines Mercury Poisoning from Amalgam Dental Fillings Tylenol, the tip of the iceberg
Deathtraps in the Cosmetics we Use
There isn't one person I have ever met who knew anything about cosmetics, and that is because the chemistry of cosmetics has always been cloaked in secrecy.
Depression
Find practical ideas for dealing with depression in these articles about symptoms and treatments.
Diseases of the Mind SAD and Bright Light Therapy
Get Healthy!
We are surrounded by unhealthy foods, unwise practices, and even harmful medical advice. Learn how to overcome these obstacles and choose a healthy lifestyle.
The Eight Laws of Health "You've Changed" When Sin Has Nothing To Feed Upon Physical and Spiritual Health Use it or Lose it! Living off the Land An Attitude of Gratitude Serving Others A Healthy Attitude The Healing Power of Honey Iron in the Vegan Diet Healing
Helpful Health Charts
These graphs and tables can help you jumpstart your health routine.
Sources of Calcium - Chart Animal Products and Food-borne Illness Chocolate and Carob Compared Compatible Combinations of Plant Foods - Graph Acid and Alkaline Ash Food Groups - Graph Schedule for a Healthy Lifestyle