What an organism looks like and what it is made of, also known as the form and structure of an organism.
The inheritable information carried in the cells of all living organisms. This stored information is used as a "blueprint" for building and maintaining the organism
Having to do with physiology, or the functions in living things.
A full set of chromosomes. A regular cell contains two full genomes.
A segment of DNA that controls the expression of a gene.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that stores genetic make up, or code. All living things have DNA.
Is the Gastraea Hypothesis Viable?
Author: Professor Walter J. Veith, PhD
Publish date:

On the basis of morphology, Haeckel's Gastraea Hypothesis seems to provide a reasonable pictures of how multicellular organisms evolved. However, at the genetic level there are serious obstacles.

In order to survive as living cells, the early ancestral cells needed a genotype capable of producing all the relevant proteins required to fulfil their physiological and structural needs. These early cells would have had genes coding for all the essential enzymes required to maintain the physiological processes and genes coding for all the necessary proteins involved in the structure or morphology of the cells. The probablility of a cell being formed by chance is incredibly minute, but for the sake of this argument, we will assume that such a cell did in fact arise.

Furthermore, it is not too difficult to imagine that a situation could have arisen where cells remained stuck together after cell division, thus resulting in multicellular colonies with the cells embedded in a common matrix. Problems arise, however, when the evolution of cell differentiation and eventual specialization are considered. If the colony arose through cell division, then each of the original colonial cells would have had the same genetic composition, coding for the simplest of cells.

Live Mouse Skin Cell Imaging

The evolution of specialized cells requires that the different cells also evolve different morphologies and specialized structures dictated by their function. New and diverse morphological and physiological features had to develop as the organisms became more and more complex. The simple colonies would thus eventually consist of more than one cell type.

In order to ensure continuity, the genetic changes would have to be passable to the next generations, which requires a far more complex gene arrangement than existed in the unicellular organism. All the variants would have to be located in each cell, with the possibility for selective activation of one or the other batteries of genes.

Assuming that the new genes somehow did evolve, and the organism was endowed with different sets of genes governing the different morphological expressions, there would then be an even greater obstacle to overcome, namely selection. The genes of cells in particular situations would have one set of genes activated and cells in another situation would have the alternative genes activated. As a comparison, in organisms living today, nerve cells have a set of genes activated that distinguish them morphologically and physiologically from liver cells, which have a different part of the genome activated, although both possess the full set of genes.

This differential activation of either the one battery of genes or the other requires a complex system of controlling genes, which would all have to come about by chance. The probability of just one function gene arising by random chance process is less than one in the number of particles in the entire universe. In fact, it is more probable for an explosion in a woodpile to construct a functional house by chance than it is for just one such new gene to come about by random chance processes. Moreover, one would have to postulate the same scenario thousands of times as cell differentiation increased. This requires a great deal of faith.

The complexity of the genetic requirements for just two different cell types to coexist within an organism is awesome, as can be illustrated by the following example.

If we look at the relationship between a muscle cell and a nerve cell, then it is obvious that there is a great deal of morphological and functional difference between the two. This requires different gene sets to be activated in the two cell types.

Of course, these two cell types would have to cooperate with each other in the living organism in order to be of any value to the organism. Also remember that at the level of the genotype, the processes occur by chance and natural selection can only come into play once thephenotype has been produced. We are not dealing with just a simple genetic variance to achieve these goals, but a host of new genes is required to allow just these two cell types to coexist, let alone the thousands of cell types present in complex multicellular organisms.

For just these two cells, the following genes are required at minimum:

Overall structure of a muscle cell and neuromuscular junction:
1. Axon
2. Neuromuscular junction

1. Promoter genes enabling the selective activation of either the one or the other. In nerve cells, only those genes which are required for nerve cells will be activated. In muscle cells only those required by muscle cells will be activated.

2. Genes, or DNA sequences, which are sensitive to the environmental cues.

3. Genes to govern the cooperation between the two cell types. This is a very complex arrangement. The two cells would have to link up morphologically in order for the one to activate the other, and there would have to be receptors that enable transfer of information from one to the other.

Where did all these genes come from? The first simple organism required more of these genes which make cooperation between different cells possible. As natural selection does not operate at the level of thegenotype , and cannot create anything anyways (only sort out that which is already there), these genes had to come about by either chance or design. Considering the complexity of the system, design seems to be the only option.

Haeckel's Gastraea theory is based on a simple morphological sequence that looks good on paper, but is untenable in reality. Read about the ways variation is increased

All mechanisms that produce variation rely on existing genetic material. None of them were subject to selection, and each of them had to come about by chance or design

Updated March 2010.

Science Deceptions
Media Deceptions
Spiritual Deceptions
A Basis for Conflict
Is there evidence for Creation science? How does it compare to evolution? The following articles give insight in to these questions and more.
Conforming Under Pressure Evolution Is Not Science—It's Religion How Can We See Stars That Are Billions Of Light Years Away? Creation and Evolution: Is Compromise Possible? Understanding the Creation Week Geocentricity: It's Time to Face the Facts The Rise of Evolutionary Thinking Earth's History: Conflicting Paradigms Lamarck Proposes Natural Selection Where did the Universe Come From? Evidence for a Young Universe Age Of The Earth Is Carbon-Dating Accurate? Flood Chronology
Evidence in Stone
Can we understand the age of the earth by the rocks? What theory does the evidence support?
Soft Rock Evidence for Rapid Washout
The Fossil Record
What does the fossil record show us? Is it all random or a defined science that we can understand? Where does evolution fit? Uncover mysteries in the history of the Earth.
Evolutionary Sequences Order in the Fossil Record Evolution of the Horse Explosive Evolution Fossils prove a Flood Fossil Footprints Dinosaurs and the Flood Petrified Trees The Biblical Flood Reasons For Extinction Fossil Reefs The Post-Flood World Human Evolution
Genes of Genesis
As we study the genome, the molecule, and the atom, we see a vast network of intricate systems beyond our understanding. Were these systems really formed by chance?
Why So Many Species - Glossary Is the Gastraea Hypothesis Viable? Mechanisms For Variation Built-in Variation in the Gene Pool Answering Questions "Species" versus "Kind" Molecules That Began Life Creating Life in a Test Tube? Post-Flood Distribution Natural Selection Reproductive Exchange Natural Selection as a Creative Force Transposable Elements Recombination of Chromosomes The Evidence of Things Not Seen Ernst Haeckel's Theories Dinosaur Extinction and Global Catastrophe Jesus Christ—All Things Become New Variation and Classification Evolution: Miracle of Miracles Why So Many Species? Is The Grand Canyon Proof of Noah's Flood? Spiders and the Creative Genius of God Things That Negate Evolution: Snake Legs Wrong Assumptions in C-14 Dating Methods Rapid Cave Formation The Australian Problem Synesthesia: Mystery of God’s Creation
Creation to Restoration
How did this world change from the perfection depicted in Genesis to a world full of thorns, thistles, parasites, and death? If God made everything perfect, how could it have all been so changed?
A Good World Gone Bad An Imperfect Planet Evidence For Design Evidence For Transformation Rapid Transformation Clean and Unclean: The History of the Human Diet The Dawn Chorus and Life Forces
Archaeology and the Bible
Archaeology and prophecy have proven the Bible to be true. But what's so special about the Bible that makes it a point of so much controversy?
Archaeology Confirms the Bible Tyre and the Bible Petra and the Bible Egypt and the Bible Babylon and the Bible The Lost Books of the Bible
Crossing Musical Boundaries
Music is a powerful emotional motivator that crosses cultural and language barriers. Its message can be understood by every culture and people across the planet.
The Philosophers Talk Music Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Christianity The Pursuit of Pleasure Music and Worship The Beat Whose Music? The Rave Can You Feel the Music? The Bible and Rock Music: Are they Compatible? The Last Great Contest – Worship The Ear Classical Music Therapy Music and the Frontal Lobe From the Horse's Mouth: The Rock Industry Condemns Itself
Hollywood and the Movies
What is the system of worship found most often in our society? Does it glorify God?
Hollywood's History Gnostic Themes in the Movies Hollywood and Gnosticism
Brain Closed—Please Come Again
Research has shown that our sensitivity to stimuli reduces itself yearly by about 1%. Is your brain hibernating?
The Dangers of Television
Beware of the television's abilities to hypnotize, alter moods, and even cause depression.
Violence and Video Games
Like music and movies, video games are addictive and can cause behavioral problems.
The Origins of Halloween
What is the origin behind this popular festival celebrated every October 31?
Introduction to the Reformation
What started the Protestant Reformation? Was the Reformation a success? Does it still matter today?
The Pope Claims to be God on Earth
Read proof that throughout the Roman Church's history, the Papacy has often claimed that the Pope is divine.
The Bloody History of Papal Rome - A Timeline
The oppression of Protestants is widespread and consistent throughout history.
The Bloody History of Papal Rome - Quotes
It was once written in America's oldest Catholic newspaper, the Boston Pilot, that "No good government can exist without religion, and there can be no religion without an Inquisition, which is wisely designed for the promotion and protection of the true faith.”

Read several authors' thoughts on papal Rome's history.
Catholic Councils
What happened at the Council of Trent? The First Vatican Council The Second Vatican Council
The Jesuits
Learn what people throughout history have had to say on the reputation, history, and political nature of the Jesuit Order.
An Introduction to the Jesuits Jesuits and the Hippie Movement Ignatius of Loyola and Martin Luther "Caring" and a New Morality Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises Ignatius Loyola and Spiritual Formation Protestantism Destroyed The Jesuit Superior General
Cross and Crown
This book "Cross and Crown" is a powerful and thrilling recital of the most romantic and dramatic incidents in history to be found on record, told in the simplest, most graphic, and entertaining form.
The Aggressive Intentions of the Papacy
The historian Ranke says this about Protestant-Catholic relations: "In the year 1617, everything betokened a decisive conflict between them. The Catholic party appears to have felt itself the superior. At all events it was the first to take up arms."

This article highlights quotes from historical and Catholic sources proving the Papacy's aggressive nature.
Christianity and Violence
Would the world be a safer place without Christian fundamentalism?
Stories of the Reformation
Dive into history to uncover the remarkable stories of faith and passion in early Protestantism.
An Italian mystic. A minister to a British king. An Augustine monk. A Swiss farmer's boy. What do these men have in common? They were used by God in powerful ways to bring about the Protestant Reformation. Enter into the lives of these ordinary people with extraordinary stories.
Inspiration for these articles comes from Gideon and Hilda Hagstoz' Heroes of the Reformation
Philipp Melanchthon John Laski Jerome of Prague John Wycliffe Louis De Berquin Gaspard De Coligny
Religious Doublespeak
Language can be used to communicate both truth and lies. Learn about the religious doublespeak being used to pull the wool over the eyes of the world.
Hegelian Thinking and World Politics
Hegelian dialectic thinking is applied in many situations in world politics. Often the ordinary people are used as pawns in the game of Hegelian psychology played by those who pull the strings of world control.
The Great Controversy
Read this classic work by Ellen G. White.
The Destruction of Jerusalem Persecution in the First Centuries An Era of Spiritual Darkness The Waldenses John Wycliffe Huss and Jerome Luther's Separation From Rome Luther Before the Diet The Swiss Reformer Progress of Reform in Germany Protest of the Princes The French Reformation The Netherlands and Scandinavia Later English Reformers The Bible and the French Revolution The Pilgrim Fathers Heralds of the Morning An American Reformer Light Through Darkness A Great Religious Awakening A Warning Rejected Prophecies Fulfilled What is the Sanctuary? In the Holy of Holies God's Law Immutable A Work of Reform Modern Revivals Facing Life's Record The Origin of Evil Enmity Between Man and Satan Agency of Evil Spirits Snares of Satan The First Great Deception Can Our Dead Speak to Us? Liberty of Conscience Threatened The Impending Conflict The Scriptures a Safeguard The Final Warning The Time of Trouble God's People Delivered Desolation of the Earth The Controversy Ended
Who is Jesus?
Is Jesus really who He says He is?
Did Jesus Ever Exist? Was Jesus the Messiah? Is What Christianity Teaches True? The Godhead and the One True God Movement Is Jesus God? Jesus: The Mercy Seat Why Did Jesus Have To Die? Six Purposes for Christ's Life and Death on Earth What Day Did Jesus Die? The 70-Week Prophecy Jesus, the Recycled Redeemer Names of Christ in Revelation
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
The First Beast—Comparing Daniel 7 and Revelation 13 Revelation Identifies End-Time Babylon The Second Beast of Revelation 13 Identifying the Antichrist The Final Confederacy Walking Through Daniel The Seven Plagues Walking through Revelation
Religious Trends
What are the trends in the religious world today? Sun Worship, The UN and the One World Religion, Eastern Mysticism and Spiritism... Just what do all these things mean in light of Bible prophecy?
Babylonian Religion Sun Worship The Charismatic Movement Politics and the Papacy Paganism and Mary Wealth Redistribution Spiritism throughout Religions Catholic Pentecostalism Unity at All Cost? Sustainability Pentecostalism The Charismatic Movement and Spiritual Gifts Paganism and Christmas Manifesting the Charismatic Spirit The New Age Movement Paganism in our Culture The United Nations' Global Government The History of Tongues Secret Societies Revival and the "Power of God" Signs and Wonders What’s So Bad about Spiritual Formation? Zionism
Most people can understand the reasoning behind nine of the Ten Commandments—don't kill, don't lie, don't steal. But what about the Sabbath Commandment? Why would God give such a law? Why should we follow it?
What is the Seventh-Day Sabbath? Creation and the Sabbath The Weekly Cycle Why Sunday? Sabbath FAQ
The Second Coming of Christ
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
Signs of The Second Coming of Christ The Second Coming of Christ Viewpoints How Christ will Return What will Happen to God's People? What will Happen to the Rejecters of God? Will there be a Secret Rapture? The Millennium of Peace
The Bible
Can the Bible be trusted to provide answers to our questions? Does it contain truth? Learn about the evidence that proves the Bible's authenticity.
Archaeology Confirms the Bible Choosing the Books of the Bible Studying Scripture Scripture is Inspired by God Testing the Gospel of Thomas Testing the Gospel of Judas The Spirit in Scripture The Lost Books of the Bible The Gospel Story Spiritual Gifts
Christian Living: Sin and Salvation
Consider the crucial points of the Christian life.
Christian Living Good God, Bad World. Why? God's Plan to Eradicate Sin Salvation By Faith The Ceremonial Feasts Pointed to Christ
Is there more to death than the fact that it is the opposite of life? What are the false doctrines involving the immortality of the soul?
Death: Understanding the Terminology A Biblical Understanding of Death The Resurrection of Lazarus Spiritism Hell and Purgatory An Immediate Afterlife? The Parable of Lazarus