The inheritable information carried in the cells of all living organisms. This stored information is used as a "blueprint" for building and maintaining the organism
The physical attributes of an organism. They are caused by both the organism’s genotype and its environment.
A five-stage process in which information is copied from DNA to RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that stores genetic make up, or code. All living things have DNA.
RNA and protein complexes that help with the expression of genetic information.
Molecules similar to DNA that are involved in the production of proteins in living things. While DNA molecules are double-stranded, RNA molecules are usually single-stranded.
Natural Selection as a Creative Force
Author: Professor Walter J. Veith, PhD
Publish date:
Summary: Natural selection is based on the survival of the fittest. Can different species develop based on this reasoning?

Natural selection in itself is not a scientific principle because it is based on circular reasoning. By natural selection, less fit organisms are eliminated and fitter organisms survive to propagate the species. Organisms thus survive the process because they are fitter, and one concludes that they are fitter because they survive.

The process operates by elimination, not addition. In order for the fitter to survive, there must have been a less fit that did not survive. Natural selection does not create features, adaptations, or even life, it merely selects for the feature that provides greater survival value. The features themselves must still come into existence by random chance processes. Moreover, because the mechanism of natural selection operates by eliminating the less fit, it must eventually lead to less diversity unless the random chance "creation" of features outstrips natural selection in pace. This is an extremely unlikely scenario.

How can an elimination mechanism create more diversity? After all, this is what the evolutionary paradigm requires, in order for more complex diverse life forms to have evolved from a single ancestor. If natural selection is to take the place of God, then it is a god of elimination. Platnick (1977) wondered if there is any difference in the noted evolutionist Ernst Mayr's concept of "an all-powerful natural selection" and that of an all-powerful Creator. i,ii

A look at the palaeontological record will reveal a far greater diversity of life in the past than in the present. Moreover, as environmental pressures increase, more species are becoming extinct. Natural selection appears to be doing a good job at eliminating life forms. If given a little bit more time, it might even complete the job. Thus, if variation did not come about by natural selection, where did it come from?

Before discussing this vital question, there is a further issue regarding natural selection that needs to be discussed, and that is the level at which natural selection operates. Natural selection operates at the level of the phenotype and not the level of the genotype.
This is a cardinal rule in evolution. Processes that produce changes in the genes occur by chance through mutation and only once the gene has been transcribed and produced the phenotype can natural selection come into play. Mathematical models show that the probability is zero for selection operating at the level of the phenotype to bring about changes when random mutations are performed at the genotype level.iii

Let us consider this by means of a simple analogy. If I have a book with detailed instructions on how to build a number of model airplanes, how do I know which one flies best? I build the airplanes, test fly them, and select the one that flies best. In our example, the instruction book is the genotype and the actual airplane is the phenotype.

Selection can only take place once at least two airplanes have been built and can be tested. There have to be at least two variants or else there is nothing to choose from.

Selection cannot take place at the level of the book, as the words in the book only become meaningful once they have been translated into the airplane. Three questions now arise:

1. Who wrote the book?

2. If the book remained closed on the shelf would I know which airplane flies best?

3. How are the instructions translated into the product?

Let's start with the first question. The book is the genotype, so it came into existence by chance. The variants on the original (more than one airplane design) came about by chance through mutations. This might sound ridiculous, but is precisely what the theory of evolution proposes.

The genotype of even the simplest organisms is far more detailed and complex than our book. To believe this thus requires a great deal of faith.

Turning to the next question, the answer to this is obviously no. A mechanism must exist to unravel the instructions in the book. This requires that the book be opened (the equivalent of enzyme systems that unravel the DNA molecules so that transcription can commence). Does this tell me which airplane flies best? No, they are still not built at this stage. Where did the mechanism to open the book (unravel the DNA molecules) come from? As natural selection will only come into play at the level of the airplanes (the phenotype), once again our only solution must be by chance. Given the complexity of these systems, once again this requires a great deal of faith.

Finally, we turn to the third question: how are the airplanes finally built? By an intelligent human or by robot assembly mechanisms designed by an intelligent human. In the case of the cell, the complex "robot assembly line" is the complex transcription process using RNA and ribosomes to construct proteins.

The proteins are the equivalent of our airplanes, so how did the assembly process come into existence that was to build the final product (the phenotype)? The answer must once again be chance. DNA and RNA are like letters of the alphabet, their validity cannot be tested until translated.

To believe that these mechanisms come about by chance random processes requires extraordinary faith. Indeed, the handiwork of an intelligent Designer is written all over it. This also requires faith, but faith of a different kind.

Ahead to The Origin of Higher Life Forms



i. Ernst Mayr, Evolution and The Diversity of Life, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).

ii. N. Platnick, "Review of Evolution and the Diversity of Life" Systematic Zoology (1977): 224-228.

iii. M. Schuetzenberger. 1967. "Algorithms and neo-Darwinian theory" Mathematical challenges to the neo-Darwinian interpretation of evolution (1967): 73.

Science Deceptions
Media Deceptions
Spiritual Deceptions
A Basis for Conflict
Is there evidence for Creation science? How does it compare to evolution? The following articles give insight in to these questions and more.
Conforming Under Pressure Evolution Is Not Science—It's Religion How Can We See Stars That Are Billions Of Light Years Away? Creation and Evolution: Is Compromise Possible? Understanding the Creation Week Geocentricity: It's Time to Face the Facts The Rise of Evolutionary Thinking Earth's History: Conflicting Paradigms Lamarck Proposes Natural Selection Where did the Universe Come From? Evidence for a Young Universe Age Of The Earth Is Carbon-Dating Accurate? Flood Chronology
Evidence in Stone
Can we understand the age of the earth by the rocks? What theory does the evidence support?
Soft Rock Evidence for Rapid Washout
The Fossil Record
What does the fossil record show us? Is it all random or a defined science that we can understand? Where does evolution fit? Uncover mysteries in the history of the Earth.
Evolutionary Sequences Order in the Fossil Record Evolution of the Horse Explosive Evolution Fossils prove a Flood Fossil Footprints Dinosaurs and the Flood Petrified Trees The Biblical Flood Reasons For Extinction Fossil Reefs The Post-Flood World Human Evolution
Genes of Genesis
As we study the genome, the molecule, and the atom, we see a vast network of intricate systems beyond our understanding. Were these systems really formed by chance?
Why So Many Species - Glossary Is the Gastraea Hypothesis Viable? Mechanisms For Variation Built-in Variation in the Gene Pool Answering Questions "Species" versus "Kind" Molecules That Began Life Creating Life in a Test Tube? Post-Flood Distribution Natural Selection Reproductive Exchange Natural Selection as a Creative Force Transposable Elements Recombination of Chromosomes The Evidence of Things Not Seen Ernst Haeckel's Theories Dinosaur Extinction and Global Catastrophe Jesus Christ—All Things Become New Variation and Classification Evolution: Miracle of Miracles Why So Many Species? Is The Grand Canyon Proof of Noah's Flood? Spiders and the Creative Genius of God Things That Negate Evolution: Snake Legs Wrong Assumptions in C-14 Dating Methods Rapid Cave Formation The Australian Problem Synesthesia: Mystery of God’s Creation
Creation to Restoration
How did this world change from the perfection depicted in Genesis to a world full of thorns, thistles, parasites, and death? If God made everything perfect, how could it have all been so changed?
A Good World Gone Bad An Imperfect Planet Evidence For Design Evidence For Transformation Rapid Transformation Clean and Unclean: The History of the Human Diet The Dawn Chorus and Life Forces
Archaeology and the Bible
Archaeology and prophecy have proven the Bible to be true. But what's so special about the Bible that makes it a point of so much controversy?
Archaeology Confirms the Bible Tyre and the Bible Petra and the Bible Egypt and the Bible Babylon and the Bible The Lost Books of the Bible
Crossing Musical Boundaries
Music is a powerful emotional motivator that crosses cultural and language barriers. Its message can be understood by every culture and people across the planet.
The Philosophers Talk Music Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Christianity The Pursuit of Pleasure Music and Worship The Beat Whose Music? The Rave Can You Feel the Music? The Bible and Rock Music: Are they Compatible? The Last Great Contest – Worship The Ear Classical Music Therapy Music and the Frontal Lobe From the Horse's Mouth: The Rock Industry Condemns Itself
Hollywood and the Movies
What is the system of worship found most often in our society? Does it glorify God?
Hollywood's History Gnostic Themes in the Movies Hollywood and Gnosticism
Brain Closed—Please Come Again
Research has shown that our sensitivity to stimuli reduces itself yearly by about 1%. Is your brain hibernating?
The Dangers of Television
Beware of the television's abilities to hypnotize, alter moods, and even cause depression.
Violence and Video Games
Like music and movies, video games are addictive and can cause behavioral problems.
The Origins of Halloween
What is the origin behind this popular festival celebrated every October 31?
Introduction to the Reformation
What started the Protestant Reformation? Was the Reformation a success? Does it still matter today?
The Pope Claims to be God on Earth
Read proof that throughout the Roman Church's history, the Papacy has often claimed that the Pope is divine.
The Bloody History of Papal Rome - A Timeline
The oppression of Protestants is widespread and consistent throughout history.
The Bloody History of Papal Rome - Quotes
It was once written in America's oldest Catholic newspaper, the Boston Pilot, that "No good government can exist without religion, and there can be no religion without an Inquisition, which is wisely designed for the promotion and protection of the true faith.”

Read several authors' thoughts on papal Rome's history.
Catholic Councils
What happened at the Council of Trent? The First Vatican Council The Second Vatican Council
The Jesuits
Learn what people throughout history have had to say on the reputation, history, and political nature of the Jesuit Order.
An Introduction to the Jesuits Jesuits and the Hippie Movement Ignatius of Loyola and Martin Luther "Caring" and a New Morality Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises Ignatius Loyola and Spiritual Formation Protestantism Destroyed The Jesuit Superior General
Cross and Crown
This book "Cross and Crown" is a powerful and thrilling recital of the most romantic and dramatic incidents in history to be found on record, told in the simplest, most graphic, and entertaining form.
The Aggressive Intentions of the Papacy
The historian Ranke says this about Protestant-Catholic relations: "In the year 1617, everything betokened a decisive conflict between them. The Catholic party appears to have felt itself the superior. At all events it was the first to take up arms."

This article highlights quotes from historical and Catholic sources proving the Papacy's aggressive nature.
Christianity and Violence
Would the world be a safer place without Christian fundamentalism?
Stories of the Reformation
Dive into history to uncover the remarkable stories of faith and passion in early Protestantism.
An Italian mystic. A minister to a British king. An Augustine monk. A Swiss farmer's boy. What do these men have in common? They were used by God in powerful ways to bring about the Protestant Reformation. Enter into the lives of these ordinary people with extraordinary stories.
Inspiration for these articles comes from Gideon and Hilda Hagstoz' Heroes of the Reformation
Philipp Melanchthon John Laski Jerome of Prague John Wycliffe Louis De Berquin Gaspard De Coligny
Religious Doublespeak
Language can be used to communicate both truth and lies. Learn about the religious doublespeak being used to pull the wool over the eyes of the world.
Hegelian Thinking and World Politics
Hegelian dialectic thinking is applied in many situations in world politics. Often the ordinary people are used as pawns in the game of Hegelian psychology played by those who pull the strings of world control.
The Great Controversy
Read this classic work by Ellen G. White.
The Destruction of Jerusalem Persecution in the First Centuries An Era of Spiritual Darkness The Waldenses John Wycliffe Huss and Jerome Luther's Separation From Rome Luther Before the Diet The Swiss Reformer Progress of Reform in Germany Protest of the Princes The French Reformation The Netherlands and Scandinavia Later English Reformers The Bible and the French Revolution The Pilgrim Fathers Heralds of the Morning An American Reformer Light Through Darkness A Great Religious Awakening A Warning Rejected Prophecies Fulfilled What is the Sanctuary? In the Holy of Holies God's Law Immutable A Work of Reform Modern Revivals Facing Life's Record The Origin of Evil Enmity Between Man and Satan Agency of Evil Spirits Snares of Satan The First Great Deception Can Our Dead Speak to Us? Liberty of Conscience Threatened The Impending Conflict The Scriptures a Safeguard The Final Warning The Time of Trouble God's People Delivered Desolation of the Earth The Controversy Ended
Who is Jesus?
Is Jesus really who He says He is?
Did Jesus Ever Exist? Was Jesus the Messiah? Is What Christianity Teaches True? The Godhead and the One True God Movement Is Jesus God? Jesus: The Mercy Seat Why Did Jesus Have To Die? Six Purposes for Christ's Life and Death on Earth What Day Did Jesus Die? The 70-Week Prophecy Jesus, the Recycled Redeemer Names of Christ in Revelation
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
The First Beast—Comparing Daniel 7 and Revelation 13 Revelation Identifies End-Time Babylon The Second Beast of Revelation 13 Identifying the Antichrist The Final Confederacy Walking Through Daniel The Seven Plagues Walking through Revelation
Religious Trends
What are the trends in the religious world today? Sun Worship, The UN and the One World Religion, Eastern Mysticism and Spiritism... Just what do all these things mean in light of Bible prophecy?
Babylonian Religion Sun Worship The Charismatic Movement Politics and the Papacy Paganism and Mary Wealth Redistribution Spiritism throughout Religions Catholic Pentecostalism Unity at All Cost? Sustainability Pentecostalism The Charismatic Movement and Spiritual Gifts Paganism and Christmas Manifesting the Charismatic Spirit The New Age Movement Paganism in our Culture The United Nations' Global Government The History of Tongues Secret Societies Revival and the "Power of God" Signs and Wonders What’s So Bad about Spiritual Formation? Zionism
Most people can understand the reasoning behind nine of the Ten Commandments—don't kill, don't lie, don't steal. But what about the Sabbath Commandment? Why would God give such a law? Why should we follow it?
What is the Seventh-Day Sabbath? Creation and the Sabbath The Weekly Cycle Why Sunday? Sabbath FAQ
The Second Coming of Christ
How will Christ return, and what will it mean for His people?
Signs of The Second Coming of Christ The Second Coming of Christ Viewpoints How Christ will Return What will Happen to God's People? What will Happen to the Rejecters of God? Will there be a Secret Rapture? The Millennium of Peace
The Bible
Can the Bible be trusted to provide answers to our questions? Does it contain truth? Learn about the evidence that proves the Bible's authenticity.
Archaeology Confirms the Bible Choosing the Books of the Bible Studying Scripture Scripture is Inspired by God Testing the Gospel of Thomas Testing the Gospel of Judas The Spirit in Scripture The Lost Books of the Bible The Gospel Story Spiritual Gifts
Christian Living: Sin and Salvation
Consider the crucial points of the Christian life.
Christian Living Good God, Bad World. Why? God's Plan to Eradicate Sin Salvation By Faith The Ceremonial Feasts Pointed to Christ
Is there more to death than the fact that it is the opposite of life? What are the false doctrines involving the immortality of the soul?
Death: Understanding the Terminology A Biblical Understanding of Death The Resurrection of Lazarus Spiritism Hell and Purgatory An Immediate Afterlife? The Parable of Lazarus